With almost 350 GW of hydropower potential, South Asia area gives prospects for inexperienced hydrogen era
A shift to wash vitality in South Asia, one of many fastest-growing areas on this planet, can be instrumental for the world to realize its Internet Zero targets by 2050.
The area has a photo voltaic vitality potential of 939 gigawatts (GW), wind vitality potential of 1,289 GW and hydro vitality potential of 350 GW. Nevertheless, solely 3.8 per cent of photo voltaic, 3.05 per cent wind and 18 per cent of hydro potential has been developed thus far.
Potential of unpolluted vitality assets
Supply: One Solar One World One Grid: Vitality Integration in South Asia 2021
Though a number of nations within the area are recognized as extraordinarily weak to the impacts of local weather change, vitality remains to be primarily produced utilizing standard sources in South Asia.
The share of carbon dioxide emissions by means of fossil fuels for the facility sector within the area was 44 per cent in 2021. A low-carbon financial system is required within the area to restrict emissions.
Fossil CO2 emission in South Asia
Supply: Mitigation of Challenges for CBET Initiatives 2021
Clear vitality transition (CET) can even enhance vitality entry within the area by utilising its plentiful pure assets. Nations reminiscent of India, Nepal and Bangladesh have made important progress in offering access to energy within the distant components.
Because the demand for vitality will increase, enhancements in vitality entry and financial progress turns into vital. This makes CET within the area crucial.
The costs of renewable vitality globally have declined prior to now decade as photo voltaic and onshore wind costs have diminished by 89 per cent and 70 per cent respectively. India has elevated its share of renewables: Wind energy and solar energy account for 7 per cent of the nation’s whole vitality combine, which is twice the share in 2014.
To facilitate Internet Zero emissions, the nations must concentrate on vitality transition with a concentrate on bettering the share of renewable vitality in addition to growing the penetration of applied sciences reminiscent of offshore wind and battery storage. This may assist in the event of a inexperienced hall to fulfill the vitality entry for all.
Hydrogen is a clear, storable and versatile vitality provider with a variety of potential purposes, could be utilised as a feedstock for the trade and an emission-free gasoline supply for warmth, electrical energy and transportation.
Inexperienced hydrogen, produced utilizing renewable vitality, is the important thing to CET. In line with a H2 report by IEA, the worldwide manufacturing of H2 was 94 million tonnes in 2021.
It may be saved as liquefied gasoline with makes use of in different sectors and could be transported simply in comparison with different know-how varieties.
It thus gives alternatives for large-scale clear vitality entry and vitality transformation in South Asia.
The area’s immense hydropower potential could be tapped in to provide sustainable, environmentally considered electrical energy for use for inexperienced hydrogen manufacturing.
H2 tapped utilizing non-conventional sources of vitality is possible and is more likely to obtain cost-competitiveness.
India launched the Green Hydrogen Mission on August 15, 2021, which the Union Cupboard authorised on January 4, 2023 with a complete outlay of Rs 19,744 crore. It’s, nonetheless, but to enter the concrete coverage framework with targets in its place gasoline possibility for different nations within the area, although nations like Bhutan and Nepal have proven sturdy intent.
Enhancing vitality entry
Hydrogen as an vitality supply would complement the variable renewable vitality market, in keeping with a 2019 report by IRENA 2019. Elevated use of hydrogen can promote renewable vitality manufacturing and enhance its penetration within the industrial and different sectors.
Nepal and Bhutan have surplus hydropower potential and this may be tapped by inexperienced hydrogen electrolysers in nations like India and Bangladesh. The latter can even import renewable vitality from India.
The present hydrogen electrolysers primarily based on their differing types, reminiscent of alkaline, proton alternate membrane (PEM) and strong oxide, can ramp up and ramp down in seconds and can endure additional enhancements.
Thus, an electrolyser would work as a variable controllable load in response to frequency regulation and supply demand-side flexibility by means of variable non-conventional sources of vitality, in keeping with a report by the Asian Improvement Financial institution. Hydrogen can present the advantage of seasonal storage within the system by means of variable renewable vitality.
The price of producing inexperienced hydrogen was $4-6 per kilogram in 2020 and is estimated to cut back by greater than 50 per cent by 2040 if adopted throughout all sectors, in keeping with IRENA.
The clear surplus hydropower from the nations within the area could be exported and inexperienced hydrogen could be generated on the level of requirement within the area. This would scale back the transportation price and assist in decreasing the associated fee as effectively.
One other methodology of reaching economies of scale for inexperienced hydrogen is by importing low-cost clear vitality procured utilizing numerous market-trading devices reminiscent of Inexperienced Day Forward Market, Inexperienced Time period Forward Market (low value found in energy alternate) and utilizing it for electrolysers deployed at locations the place inexperienced hydrogen is to be generated.
With the anticipated rise in renewable vitality and the renewed prospects for hydropower, economies in these areas can get a lift from inexperienced hydrogen era, concurrently accelerating clear vitality transition and mitigating the opposed impacts of local weather change.
We’re a voice to you; you could have been a help to us. Collectively we construct journalism that’s impartial, credible and fearless. You’ll be able to additional assist us by making a donation. This may imply lots for our potential to carry you information, views and evaluation from the bottom in order that we will make change collectively.